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The SEAS Upper ontology

The SEAS Upper ontology presents abstract meta level concepts that may be aligned with existing upper ontologies.

In version v0.10 onward, the upper ontology concepts are only used in the upper ontology.

Classes

AbstractEntity

Label: Abstract Entity

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/AbstractEntity

Abstract entity has no material existence.

This may be aligned to dul:Abstract in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Endurant

Label: Endurant

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Endurant

Also known as continuants, or in some cases as substance, endurants are those entities that can be observed-perceived as a complete concept, at no matter which given snapshot of time. Were we to freeze time we would still be able to perceive/conceive the entire endurant.

Examples include material objects (such as an apple or a human), and abstract flat objects (such as an organization, or the border of a country).

(source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_ontology#Endurant)

This may be aligned to dul:Object in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Entity

Label: Entity

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Entity

Can be used instead of thing to constraint only entities defined by seas ontology.

Link

Label: Link

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Link

A relation between two entities.

This may be aligned to dul:Relation in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Perdurant

Label: Perdurant

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Perdurant

Also known as occurrents, accidents or happenings, perdurants are those entities for which only a part exists if we look at them at any given snapshot in time. When we freeze time we can only see a part of the perdurant. Perdurants are often what we know as processes, for example: running. If we freeze time then we only see a part of the running, without any previous knowledge one might not even be able to determine the actual process as being a process of running. Other examples include an activation, a kiss, or a procedure.

(source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_ontology#Perdurant)

This may be aligned to dul:Process in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Phenomenon

Label: Phenomenon

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Phenomenon

A phenomenon is something that can be observed.

This may be aligned to ssn:Property in the Semantic Sensor Network ontology.

PhysicalEntity

Label: Physical Entity

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/PhysicalEntity

Physical entity has material existence

This may be aligned to dul:PhysicalObject in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Quality

Label: Quality

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Quality

Qualities do not exist on their own, but they need another entity (in many formal ontologies this entity is restricted to be an endurant) which they occupy. Examples of qualities and the values they assume include colors (red color), or temperatures (warm).

(source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_ontology#Qualities)

This may be aligned to dul:Quality in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Topology

Label: Topology

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/Topology

A collection of entities and their links.

This may be aligned to dul:Collection in the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite ontology.

Object Properties

contains

Label: contains

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/contains

The subject contains the object. The object exist individually, and is not a part of the subject.

Examples include a person in a room

hasDirectPart

Label: hasDirectPart

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/hasDirectPart

The object is directly a part of the subject (not part of its parts)

hasPart

Label: hasPart

IRI: https://w3id.org/seas/hasPart

The object is a part of the object.

This property is transitive, and is hence a non-simple DL property(= composite OWL property).

c.f., https://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Property_Hierarchy_and_Simple_Object_Property_Expressions